Saturday, June 05, 2021

Overlapping and dissociable brain activations for fluid intelligence and executive functions

https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00870-4

Abstract

Cognitive enhancement interventions aimed at boosting human fluid intelligence (gf) have targeted executive functions (EFs), such as updating, inhibition, and switching, in the context of transfer-inducing cognitive training. However, even though the link between EFs and gf has been demonstrated at the psychometric level, their neurofunctional overlap has not been quantitatively investigated. Identifying whether and how EFs and gf might share neural activation patterns could provide important insights into the overall hierarchical organization of human higher-order cognition, as well as suggest specific targets for interventions aimed at maximizing cognitive transfer. We present the results of a quantitative meta-analysis of the available fMRI and PET literature on EFs and gf in humans, showing the similarity between gf and (i) the overall global EF network, as well as (ii) specific maps for updating, switching, and inhibition. Results highlight a higher degree of similarity between gf and updating (80% overlap) compared with gf and inhibition (34%), and gf and switching (17%). Moreover, three brain regions activated for both gf and each of the three EFs also were identified, located in the left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, resting-state functional connectivity analysis on two independent fMRI datasets showed the preferential behavioural correlation and anatomical overlap between updating and gf. These findings confirm a close link between gf and EFs, with implications for brain stimulation and cognitive training interventions.


******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Monday, March 29, 2021

Is there a “g-neuron”? Establishing a systematic link between general intelligence (g) and the von Economo neuron - ScienceDirect

 Is there a "g-neuron"? Establishing a systematic link between general intelligence (g) and the von Economo neuron - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160289621000246?via%3Dihub

Abstract
The construct of general intelligence (g) is one of psychology's most replicated and predictively useful constructs. Although research indicates that g is a highly heritable trait, deeply rooted in brain physiology, to date neither a strong biological correlate nor a comprehensive explanatory model involving neuronal mechanisms have been established. In this article I aim to do so by hypothesising that the von Economo neuron (VEN), a unique nerve cell thus far implicated in social cognitionand interoception, may in fact represent a central biological constituent of g. After presenting supportive evidence from neuroscience, psychiatry/neurology, clinical gerontology, and comparative psychology, an integrated reductionist framework is outlined, which reaches from the level of cognitive theory to the level of single neurons. Based thereon, it is concluded that the VENs might contribute to individual differences in g by rapidly inducing the coherence of neuronal oscillations within a functionally invariant parieto-frontal network underlying higher-order cognition, thereby facilitating mental efficiency.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Saturday, March 20, 2021

Estimates of brain age for gray matter and white matter in younger and older adults: insights into human intelligence - ScienceDirect

 Estimates of brain age for gray matter and white matter in younger and older adults: insights into human intelligence - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006899321002882

Abstract

Aging entails a multifaceted complex of changes in macro- and micro-structural properties of human brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) tissues, as well as in intellectual abilities. To better capture tissue-specific brain aging, we combined volumetric and diffusivity properties to derive subject-specific age scores for each tissue. We compared age-related variance between WM and GM age scores in younger and older adults and tested whether tissue-specific age scores could explain different effects of aging on fluid (Gf) and crystalized (Gc) intelligence in younger and older adults. Chronological age was strongly associated with GM (R2 = 0.73) and WM (R2 = 0.57) age scores. The GM age score accounted for significantly more variance in chronological age in younger relative to older adults (p < 0.001), whereas the WM age score accounted for significantly more variance in chronological age in older compared to younger adults (p < 0.025). Consistent with existing literature, younger adults outperformed older adults in Gf while older adults outperformed younger adults in Gc. The GM age score was negatively associated with Gf in younger adults (p < 0.02), whereas the WM age score was negatively associated with Gc in older adults (p< 0.02). Our results provide evidence for differences in the effects of age on GM and WM in younger versus older adults that may contribute to age-related differences in Gf and Gc.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Does reasoning training improve fluid reasoning and academic achievement for children and adolescents? A systematic review - ScienceDirect

 Does reasoning training improve fluid reasoning and academic achievement for children and adolescents? A systematic review - ScienceDirect 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2211949321000053

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Studies of children and adolescents suggest that reasoning training may improve both reasoning and academic achievement, but evidence and systematic evaluation of this research is limited. Accordingly, this paper provides a systematic review of the literature on reasoning training in order to describe current methods and evaluate their efficacy.

METHOD
A systematic search identified eleven articles—published between 1996 and 2016—that reported findings from thirteen separate studies of reasoning training effects on fluid reasoning (Gf) and academic achievement in children and adolescents. Specific Gf outcomes examined were analogical, deductive, inductive, nonverbal, and/or relational reasoning ability. Specific academic achievement outcomes examined were math and reading achievement. This paper reviewed studies utilizing both computerized and non-computerized methods of Gftraining.

FINDINGS
Findings from the review show that reasoning training improves Gf (near transfer effects). Although less conclusive, when considered on balance, evidence suggests that reasoning training also improves academic achievement (far transfer effects).

CONCLUSIONS
Research is needed to parameterize the effects of Gftraining on academic achievement, and in particular to identify moderators of training efficacy on academic outcomes. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Wednesday, January 27, 2021

Integrated Intelligence from Distributed Brain Activity: Trends in Cognitive Sciences

More on the central role of central control (AC-Gsm) in general intelligence.

"Earlier we noted positive manifold, the finding of ubiquitous positive correlations between different cognitive tests, and Spearman's original proposal that some general or g factor contributes to success in any cognitive activity [11,12]. One simple interpretation is that g reflects the attentional integration functions of the MD system and, in agreement with Spearman's hypothesis, we suggest that MD functions contribute very broadly to effective cognition. At the same time, it seems likely that the full explanation for positive manifold is more nuanced, with multiple contributory factors [39,58]."


Integrated Intelligence from Distributed Brain Activity: Trends in Cognitive Sciences 

tinyurl.com/ykbwklk5

Friday, December 25, 2020

Toward a Science of Effective Cognitive Training - Claire R. Smid, Julia Karbach, Nikolaus Steinbeis, 2020

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0963721420951599


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Tuesday, December 15, 2020

And more research suggesting that attentional control (AC) may be central to human intelligence

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S002396902030182X?via%3Dihub


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, December 11, 2020

Monday, November 02, 2020

Intelligence and creativity share a common cognitive and neural basis. -File under P-FIT, g, creativity, Glr, Gf, Gc, Gc, brain networks

A most excellent study.  


https://doi.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fxge0000958

Frith, E., Elbich, D. B., Christensen, A. P., Rosenberg, M. D., Chen, Q., Kane, M. J., Silvia, P. J., Seli, P., & Beaty, R. E. (2020). Intelligence and creativity share a common cognitive and neural basis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000958

Are intelligence and creativity distinct abilities, or do they rely on the same cognitive and neural systems? We sought to quantify the extent to which intelligence and creative cognition overlap in brain and behavior by combining machine learning of fMRI data and latent variable modeling of cognitive ability data in a sample of young adults (N = 186) who completed a battery of intelligence and creative thinking tasks. The study had 3 analytic goals: (a) to assess contributions of specific facets of intelligence (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence) and general intelligence to creative ability (i.e., divergent thinking originality), (b) to model whole-brain functional connectivity networks that predict intelligence facets and creative ability, and (c) to quantify the degree to which these predictive networks overlap in the brain. Using structural equation modeling, we found moderate to large correlations between intelligence facets and creative ability, as well as a large correlation between general intelligence and creative ability (r = .63). Using connectome-based predictive modeling, we found that functional brain networks that predict intelligence facets overlap to varying degrees with a network that predicts creative ability, particularly within the prefrontal cortex of the executive control network. Notably, a network that predicted general intelligence shared 46% of its functional connections with a network that predicted creative ability—including connections linking executive control and salience/ventral attention networks—suggesting that intelligence and creative thinking rely on similar neural and cognitive systems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)




******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, October 02, 2020

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-73180-001

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity.


First PostingDatabase: APA PsycArticles



Schirmer, Annett Romero-Garcia, Rafael Chiu, Man Hey Escoffier, Nicolas Penney, Trevor B. Goh, Benjamin Suckling, John Tan, Jasmine Feng, Lei

Citation

Schirmer, A., Romero-Garcia, R., Chiu, M. H., Escoffier, N., Penney, T. B., Goh, B., Suckling, J., Tan, J., & Feng, L. (2020). Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. Psychology and Aging. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000575

Abstract

Here we asked whether impaired timing in older adults results from an aging clock or a more general brain and cognitive decline. Healthy aging adults (N = 70, aged 62–83 years) tapped to the beat of a periodic and a syncopated rhythm. Analyses focused on performance differences between rhythms (periodic-syncopated), which reduced the impact of timing unrelated processes. Apart from tapping, participants completed a cognitive assessment and neuroimaging of gray matter volume (GMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) globally as well as regionally (cortical: auditory, premotor, paracentral; subcortical: putamen, caudate, cerebellum). The rhythm difference showed no significant age effects for tapping asynchrony and an age-related decrease for tapping consistency. Additionally, age reduced cognitive functioning, global GMV/FA, and, beyond this, auditory GMV. Irrespective of age, the rhythm difference in tapping asynchrony was linked, not to GMV, but to caudal, premotor, and paracentral FA after controlling for global FA. Tapping consistency was associated with global rather than regional brain integrity. Additionally, age differences in tapping consistency were mediated by a decline in global brain integrity as well as cognitive functioning. Together these results agree with previous proposals differentiating between timing accuracy and reliability and suggest that aging largely preserves the former but not the latter. Whereas timing accuracy may depend on an internal clock supported by robust striatocortical circuitry, timing reliability may depend on global brain and cognitive functioning, which show a pronounced age-related decline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Wednesday, August 05, 2020

Welcome to Channel g. Dr. Andrew Conway on Intelligence. Stay tuned

Welcome to Channel g
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/channel-g/202008/welcome-channel-g

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Saturday, July 04, 2020

Distinct rhythmic abilities align with phonological awareness and rapid naming in school-age children | SpringerLink




https://link-springer-com.ezp3.lib.umn.edu/article/10.1007/s10339-020-00984-6


Abstract

Difficulty in performing rhythmic tasks often co-occurs with literacy difficulties. Motivated by evidence showing that people can vary in their performance across different rhythmic tasks, we asked whether two rhythmic skills identified as distinct in school-age children and young adults would reveal similar or different relationships with two literacy skills known to be important for successful reading development. We addressed our question by focusing on 55 typically developing children (ages 5–8). Results show that drumming to a beat predicted the variability of rapid naming but not of phonological awareness, whereas tapping rhythmic patterns predicted phonological awareness, but not rapid naming. Our finding suggests that rhythmic interventions can be tailored to address PA and RAN deficits specifically in reading disabled children.



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, June 05, 2020

Researchers study alternative training tools designed to improve Soldier performance — Interactive Metronome

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-06/uarl-rsa060420.php


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Saturday, May 30, 2020

Hippocampal Contribution to Ordinal Psychological Time in the Human Brain

https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/jocn_a_01586#/doi/abs/10.1162/jocn_a_01586

The chronology of events in time–space is naturally available to the senses, and the spatial and temporal dimensions of events entangle in episodic memory when navigating the real world. The mapping of time–space during navigation in both animals and humans implicates the hippocampal formation. Yet, one arguably unique human trait is the capacity to imagine mental chronologies that have not been experienced but may involve real events—the foundation of causal reasoning. Herein, we asked whether the hippocampal formation is involved in mental navigation in time (and space), which requires internal manipulations of events in time and space from an egocentric perspective. To address this question, we reanalyzed a magnetoencephalography data set collected while participants self-projected in time or in space and ordered historical events as occurring before/after or west/east of the mental self [Gauthier, B., Pestke, K., & van Wassenhove, V. Building the arrow of time… Over time: A sequence of brain activity mapping imagined events in time and space. Cerebral Cortex29, 4398–4414, 2019]. Because of the limitations of source reconstruction algorithms in the previous study, the implication of hippocampus proper could not be explored. Here, we used a source reconstruction method accounting explicitly for the hippocampal volume to characterize the involvement of deep structures belonging to the hippocampal formation (bilateral hippocampi [hippocampus proper], entorhinal cortices, and parahippocampal cortex). We found selective involvement of the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) with a notable lateralization of the main effects: Whereas temporal ordinality engaged mostly the left MTL, spatial ordinality engaged mostly the right MTL. We discuss the possibility of a top–down control of activity in the human hippocampal formation during mental time (and space) travels.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

White matter matters—-Gf and white matter connectivity

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome.  Link.

Jiao Li1, Bharat B. Biswal, Yao Meng, Siqi Yang, Xujun Duan, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen, and Wei Liao

Abstract

Neuroimaging studies have uncovered the neural roots of individual differences in human general fluid intelligence (Gf). Gf is characterized by the function of specific neural circuits in brain gray-matter; however, the association between Gf and neural function in brain white-matter (WM) remains unclear. Given reliable detection of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) signals in WM, we used a functional, rather than an anatomical, neuromarker in WM to identify individual Gf. We collected longitudinal BOLD-fMRI data (in total three times, ~11 months between time 1 and time 2, and ~29 months between time 1 and time 3) in normal volunteers at rest, and identified WM functional connectomes that predicted the individual Gf at time 1 (n = 326). From internal validation analyses, we demonstrated that the constructed predictive model at time 1 predicted an individual's Gf from WM functional connectomes at time 2 (time 1 ∩ time 2: n = 105) and further at time 3 (time 1 ∩ time 3: n = 83). From external validation analyses, we demonstrated that the predictive model from time 1 was generalized to unseen individuals from another center (n = 53). From anatomical aspects, WM functional connectivity showing high predictive power predominantly included the superior longitudinal fasciculus system, deep frontal WM, and ventral frontoparietal tracts. These results thus demonstrated that WM functional connectomes offer a novel applicable neuromarker of Gf and supplement the gray-matter connectomes to explore brain–behavior relationships.

Click image to enlarge image






Tuesday, May 19, 2020

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome | Translational Psychiatry

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome | Translational Psychiatry
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-020-0829-3

Monday, May 18, 2020

Fwd: leading brains is out! Edition of 18 May 2020

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Paper.li <noreply@paper.li>
Date: May 18, 2020, 8:52 AM -0500
To: iap@earthlink.net
Subject: leading brains is out! Edition of 18 May 2020

logo
leading brains
Your neuro update
Published by
Andy Habermacher
18 May 2020
Read paper →
Science Stories Environment Education #brain #neuroscience
Scientists Bridge Neuroscience With AI Machine Learning
avatar Shared by
Cami Rosso
thumbnail psychologytoday­.com - Artificial intelligence (AI) deep learning is somewhat inspired by the human intelligence of the biological brain. Recently researchers from Bar-Ilan University demonstrated that by increasing the fr…
The scientific benefits of regular exercise for mental agility
avatar Shared by
Koos Nolst Trenite
thumbnail fastcompany­.com - Exercise is a powerful tool with a special impact on how our brains work. advertisement advertisement It energizes our bodies, causing us to take deeper breaths and oxygenate our cells, but it also i…
Body mass variation is negatively associated with brain size – evidence for the fat‐brain trade‐off in anurans
avatar Shared by
Behav Ecol Papers
thumbnail onlinelibrary­.wiley­.com - Species can evolve diverse strategies to survive periods of uncertainty. Animals may either invest in energy storage, allowing them to decrease foraging costs, such as locomotion or risk of predation…
How Your Brain's Immune System Affects Your Mood and Memory
avatar Shared by
Koos Nolst Trenite
thumbnail psychologytoday­.com - With all the focus on COVID-19, immunity has become a fixture in the news and conversation. Yes, immunity is key to fighting off infections. But it's actually a much bigger deal. In fact, it plays a …
How does the brain link events to form a memory? Study reveals unexpected mental processes
avatar Shared by
Techfest, IIT Bombay
sciencedaily­.com - This story, relayed by clinical psychiatrist and co-author of a new study Mohsin Ahmed, MD, PhD, is a powerful example of the brain's powerful ability to remember and connect events separated in time…
Science
Mind's eye: Incredible new brain implant lets the blind 'see' letters & shapes
avatar Shared by
RT UK
Brain health targets: stress, sleep, healthy aging, esports, and more
avatar Shared by
Nutritional Outlook
A Male Brain V/s A Female Brain -10 Interesting Differences
avatar Shared by
The Minds Journal
Home | Brain awareness week
avatar Shared by
GFSU
Brain Hacks To Make YOU Smarter?
avatar Shared by
Fred Hansen
Could electrical brain stimulation replace medications for depressed pregnant women?
avatar Shared by
Paul Taylor
More Science →
Stories
Louisiana Pastor Who Illegally Held In-Person Church Services Released From House Detention as Gov Relaxes Social Distancing Rules
avatar Shared by
WatchOut4CrazyPenLady!
More Stories →
Environment
This Is The Scientific Way To Win Any Argument (And Not Make Enemies)
avatar Shared by
MindButterNYC
More Environment →
Education
Great Graduates 2020: Jewel Medel
avatar Shared by
KSAT 12
More Education →
#brain
Your Brain Is Not an Onion With a Tiny Reptile Inside
avatar Shared by
John Gaspar
Novel treatment using patient's own cells opens new possibilities to treat Parkinson's disease
avatar Shared by
David Pearce
A new biomarker for the aging brain
avatar Shared by
RIKEN BDR
Dr. Daniel Amen & Jay Shetty ON Habits For A Healthy Brain
avatar Shared by
John Assaraf
New brain transplant that shows words to blind people
avatar Shared by
Tabsarah
Motivating Women To Pursue STEM: Featuring Dr. Karen Moxon
avatar Shared by
IEEE Brain
More #brain →
#neuroscience
Study suggests negative self-imagery helps maintain social anxiety
avatar Shared by
Health For The Brain
Neuroscientists Think They've Found a Previously Unknown Form of Neural Communication
avatar Shared by
Perry Kahai, Ph.D.
Blind people could 'see' letters that scientists drew on their brains with electricity
avatar Shared by
Amelia Technologies
The Vagus Nerve at the Interface of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis
avatar Shared by
Frontiers
Complement-Dependent Synaptic Uptake and Cognitive Decline after Stroke and Reperfusion Therapy
avatar Shared by
NSAS
Why Is It So Hard to Change Bad Habits?
avatar Shared by
Katie
More #neuroscience →
ScienceStoriesEnvironmentEducation#brain#neuroscience
Read paper →

Powered by

Paper.li logo

Finity SA
Innovation Park EPFL, Building C, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

Unsubscribe  · Privacy