Friday, October 02, 2020

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. - PsycNET

https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2020-73180-001

Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity.


First PostingDatabase: APA PsycArticles



Schirmer, Annett Romero-Garcia, Rafael Chiu, Man Hey Escoffier, Nicolas Penney, Trevor B. Goh, Benjamin Suckling, John Tan, Jasmine Feng, Lei

Citation

Schirmer, A., Romero-Garcia, R., Chiu, M. H., Escoffier, N., Penney, T. B., Goh, B., Suckling, J., Tan, J., & Feng, L. (2020). Rhythmic timing in aging adults: On the role of cognitive functioning and structural brain integrity. Psychology and Aging. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000575

Abstract

Here we asked whether impaired timing in older adults results from an aging clock or a more general brain and cognitive decline. Healthy aging adults (N = 70, aged 62–83 years) tapped to the beat of a periodic and a syncopated rhythm. Analyses focused on performance differences between rhythms (periodic-syncopated), which reduced the impact of timing unrelated processes. Apart from tapping, participants completed a cognitive assessment and neuroimaging of gray matter volume (GMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) globally as well as regionally (cortical: auditory, premotor, paracentral; subcortical: putamen, caudate, cerebellum). The rhythm difference showed no significant age effects for tapping asynchrony and an age-related decrease for tapping consistency. Additionally, age reduced cognitive functioning, global GMV/FA, and, beyond this, auditory GMV. Irrespective of age, the rhythm difference in tapping asynchrony was linked, not to GMV, but to caudal, premotor, and paracentral FA after controlling for global FA. Tapping consistency was associated with global rather than regional brain integrity. Additionally, age differences in tapping consistency were mediated by a decline in global brain integrity as well as cognitive functioning. Together these results agree with previous proposals differentiating between timing accuracy and reliability and suggest that aging largely preserves the former but not the latter. Whereas timing accuracy may depend on an internal clock supported by robust striatocortical circuitry, timing reliability may depend on global brain and cognitive functioning, which show a pronounced age-related decline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Wednesday, August 05, 2020

Welcome to Channel g. Dr. Andrew Conway on Intelligence. Stay tuned

Welcome to Channel g
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/channel-g/202008/welcome-channel-g

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
https://www.themindhub.com
******************************************

Saturday, July 04, 2020

Distinct rhythmic abilities align with phonological awareness and rapid naming in school-age children | SpringerLink




https://link-springer-com.ezp3.lib.umn.edu/article/10.1007/s10339-020-00984-6


Abstract

Difficulty in performing rhythmic tasks often co-occurs with literacy difficulties. Motivated by evidence showing that people can vary in their performance across different rhythmic tasks, we asked whether two rhythmic skills identified as distinct in school-age children and young adults would reveal similar or different relationships with two literacy skills known to be important for successful reading development. We addressed our question by focusing on 55 typically developing children (ages 5–8). Results show that drumming to a beat predicted the variability of rapid naming but not of phonological awareness, whereas tapping rhythmic patterns predicted phonological awareness, but not rapid naming. Our finding suggests that rhythmic interventions can be tailored to address PA and RAN deficits specifically in reading disabled children.



******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Friday, June 05, 2020

Researchers study alternative training tools designed to improve Soldier performance — Interactive Metronome

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-06/uarl-rsa060420.php


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
www.themindhub.com
******************************************************

Saturday, May 30, 2020

Hippocampal Contribution to Ordinal Psychological Time in the Human Brain

https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/jocn_a_01586#/doi/abs/10.1162/jocn_a_01586

The chronology of events in time–space is naturally available to the senses, and the spatial and temporal dimensions of events entangle in episodic memory when navigating the real world. The mapping of time–space during navigation in both animals and humans implicates the hippocampal formation. Yet, one arguably unique human trait is the capacity to imagine mental chronologies that have not been experienced but may involve real events—the foundation of causal reasoning. Herein, we asked whether the hippocampal formation is involved in mental navigation in time (and space), which requires internal manipulations of events in time and space from an egocentric perspective. To address this question, we reanalyzed a magnetoencephalography data set collected while participants self-projected in time or in space and ordered historical events as occurring before/after or west/east of the mental self [Gauthier, B., Pestke, K., & van Wassenhove, V. Building the arrow of time… Over time: A sequence of brain activity mapping imagined events in time and space. Cerebral Cortex29, 4398–4414, 2019]. Because of the limitations of source reconstruction algorithms in the previous study, the implication of hippocampus proper could not be explored. Here, we used a source reconstruction method accounting explicitly for the hippocampal volume to characterize the involvement of deep structures belonging to the hippocampal formation (bilateral hippocampi [hippocampus proper], entorhinal cortices, and parahippocampal cortex). We found selective involvement of the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) with a notable lateralization of the main effects: Whereas temporal ordinality engaged mostly the left MTL, spatial ordinality engaged mostly the right MTL. We discuss the possibility of a top–down control of activity in the human hippocampal formation during mental time (and space) travels.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

White matter matters—-Gf and white matter connectivity

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome.  Link.

Jiao Li1, Bharat B. Biswal, Yao Meng, Siqi Yang, Xujun Duan, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen, and Wei Liao

Abstract

Neuroimaging studies have uncovered the neural roots of individual differences in human general fluid intelligence (Gf). Gf is characterized by the function of specific neural circuits in brain gray-matter; however, the association between Gf and neural function in brain white-matter (WM) remains unclear. Given reliable detection of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) signals in WM, we used a functional, rather than an anatomical, neuromarker in WM to identify individual Gf. We collected longitudinal BOLD-fMRI data (in total three times, ~11 months between time 1 and time 2, and ~29 months between time 1 and time 3) in normal volunteers at rest, and identified WM functional connectomes that predicted the individual Gf at time 1 (n = 326). From internal validation analyses, we demonstrated that the constructed predictive model at time 1 predicted an individual's Gf from WM functional connectomes at time 2 (time 1 ∩ time 2: n = 105) and further at time 3 (time 1 ∩ time 3: n = 83). From external validation analyses, we demonstrated that the predictive model from time 1 was generalized to unseen individuals from another center (n = 53). From anatomical aspects, WM functional connectivity showing high predictive power predominantly included the superior longitudinal fasciculus system, deep frontal WM, and ventral frontoparietal tracts. These results thus demonstrated that WM functional connectomes offer a novel applicable neuromarker of Gf and supplement the gray-matter connectomes to explore brain–behavior relationships.

Click image to enlarge image






Tuesday, May 19, 2020

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome | Translational Psychiatry

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome | Translational Psychiatry
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-020-0829-3

Monday, May 18, 2020

Fwd: leading brains is out! Edition of 18 May 2020

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Paper.li <noreply@paper.li>
Date: May 18, 2020, 8:52 AM -0500
To: iap@earthlink.net
Subject: leading brains is out! Edition of 18 May 2020

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leading brains
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Andy Habermacher
18 May 2020
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