Saturday, May 30, 2020

Hippocampal Contribution to Ordinal Psychological Time in the Human Brain

https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/jocn_a_01586#/doi/abs/10.1162/jocn_a_01586

The chronology of events in time–space is naturally available to the senses, and the spatial and temporal dimensions of events entangle in episodic memory when navigating the real world. The mapping of time–space during navigation in both animals and humans implicates the hippocampal formation. Yet, one arguably unique human trait is the capacity to imagine mental chronologies that have not been experienced but may involve real events—the foundation of causal reasoning. Herein, we asked whether the hippocampal formation is involved in mental navigation in time (and space), which requires internal manipulations of events in time and space from an egocentric perspective. To address this question, we reanalyzed a magnetoencephalography data set collected while participants self-projected in time or in space and ordered historical events as occurring before/after or west/east of the mental self [Gauthier, B., Pestke, K., & van Wassenhove, V. Building the arrow of time… Over time: A sequence of brain activity mapping imagined events in time and space. Cerebral Cortex29, 4398–4414, 2019]. Because of the limitations of source reconstruction algorithms in the previous study, the implication of hippocampus proper could not be explored. Here, we used a source reconstruction method accounting explicitly for the hippocampal volume to characterize the involvement of deep structures belonging to the hippocampal formation (bilateral hippocampi [hippocampus proper], entorhinal cortices, and parahippocampal cortex). We found selective involvement of the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) with a notable lateralization of the main effects: Whereas temporal ordinality engaged mostly the left MTL, spatial ordinality engaged mostly the right MTL. We discuss the possibility of a top–down control of activity in the human hippocampal formation during mental time (and space) travels.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

White matter matters—-Gf and white matter connectivity

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome.  Link.

Jiao Li1, Bharat B. Biswal, Yao Meng, Siqi Yang, Xujun Duan, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen, and Wei Liao

Abstract

Neuroimaging studies have uncovered the neural roots of individual differences in human general fluid intelligence (Gf). Gf is characterized by the function of specific neural circuits in brain gray-matter; however, the association between Gf and neural function in brain white-matter (WM) remains unclear. Given reliable detection of blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) signals in WM, we used a functional, rather than an anatomical, neuromarker in WM to identify individual Gf. We collected longitudinal BOLD-fMRI data (in total three times, ~11 months between time 1 and time 2, and ~29 months between time 1 and time 3) in normal volunteers at rest, and identified WM functional connectomes that predicted the individual Gf at time 1 (n = 326). From internal validation analyses, we demonstrated that the constructed predictive model at time 1 predicted an individual's Gf from WM functional connectomes at time 2 (time 1 ∩ time 2: n = 105) and further at time 3 (time 1 ∩ time 3: n = 83). From external validation analyses, we demonstrated that the predictive model from time 1 was generalized to unseen individuals from another center (n = 53). From anatomical aspects, WM functional connectivity showing high predictive power predominantly included the superior longitudinal fasciculus system, deep frontal WM, and ventral frontoparietal tracts. These results thus demonstrated that WM functional connectomes offer a novel applicable neuromarker of Gf and supplement the gray-matter connectomes to explore brain–behavior relationships.

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Tuesday, May 19, 2020

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome | Translational Psychiatry

A neuromarker of individual general fluid intelligence from the white-matter functional connectome | Translational Psychiatry
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-020-0829-3

Monday, May 18, 2020

Fwd: leading brains is out! Edition of 18 May 2020

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From: Paper.li <noreply@paper.li>
Date: May 18, 2020, 8:52 AM -0500
To: iap@earthlink.net
Subject: leading brains is out! Edition of 18 May 2020

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leading brains
Your neuro update
Published by
Andy Habermacher
18 May 2020
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Science Stories Environment Education #brain #neuroscience
Scientists Bridge Neuroscience With AI Machine Learning
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The scientific benefits of regular exercise for mental agility
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Body mass variation is negatively associated with brain size – evidence for the fat‐brain trade‐off in anurans
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thumbnail onlinelibrary­.wiley­.com - Species can evolve diverse strategies to survive periods of uncertainty. Animals may either invest in energy storage, allowing them to decrease foraging costs, such as locomotion or risk of predation…
How Your Brain's Immune System Affects Your Mood and Memory
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How does the brain link events to form a memory? Study reveals unexpected mental processes
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Sunday, May 10, 2020

Processing of Rhythm in Speech and Music in Adult Dyslexia

Study link.

Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that musical rhythm perception ability can affect the phonological system. The most prevalent causal account for developmental dyslexia is the phonological deficit hypothesis. As rhythm is a subpart of phonology, we hypothesized that reading deficits in dyslexia are associated with rhythm processing in speech and in music. In a rhythmic grouping task, adults with diagnosed dyslexia and age-matched controls listened to speech streams with syllables alternating in intensity, duration, or neither, and indicated whether they perceived a strong-weak or weak-strong rhythm pattern. Additionally, their reading and musical rhythm abilities were measured. Results showed that adults with dyslexia had lower musical rhythm abilities than adults without dyslexia. Moreover, lower musical rhythm ability was associated with lower reading ability in dyslexia. However, speech grouping by adults with dyslexia was not impaired when musical rhythm perception ability was controlled: like adults without dyslexia, they showed consistent preferences. However, rhythmic grouping was predicted by musical rhythm perception ability, irrespective of dyslexia. The results suggest associations among musical rhythm perception ability, speech rhythm perception, and reading ability. This highlights the importance of considering individual variability to better understand dyslexia and raises the possibility that musical rhythm perception ability is a key to phonological and reading acquisition. 

Keywords: developmental dyslexia; Iambic/Trochaic Law; rhythmic grouping; musicality; speech perception; rhythm perception 
link.

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Friday, February 28, 2020

Fluid intelligence is associated with cortical volume and white matter tract integrity within multiple-demand system across adult lifespan - ScienceDirect

Fluid intelligence is associated with cortical volume and white matter tract integrity within multiple-demand system across adult lifespan - ScienceDirect
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105381192030063X

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Friday, February 14, 2020

Neurocognitive Psychometrics of Intelligence: How Measurement Advancements Unveiled the Role of Mental Speed in Intelligence Differences - Anna-Lena Schubert, Gidon T. Frischkorn,

Neurocognitive Psychometrics of Intelligence: How Measurement Advancements Unveiled the Role of Mental Speed in Intelligence Differences - Anna-Lena Schubert, Gidon T. Frischkorn,
https://flip.it/6TxoL5

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Monday, February 10, 2020

Why Boredom Is Interesting - Erin C. Westgate, 2020

Why Boredom Is Interesting - Erin C. Westgate, 2020
https://flip.it/v6oiHr

--
***********************************************
Kevin S. McGrew,  PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
www.themindhub.com
************************************************

Thursday, January 09, 2020

Synchronizing with Brain Clocks

Synchronizing with Brain Clocks
https://flip.it/qbuOJC

******************************************
Kevin S. McGrew, PhD
Educational & School Psychologist
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP)
******************************************


Friday, December 06, 2019

Growing debate about the ethics and regulation of direct-to-consumer transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

https://sharpbrains.com/blog/2019/12/06/growing-debate-about-the-ethics-and-regulation-of-direct-to-consumer-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs/

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Friday, September 13, 2019

Startup Aural Analytics raises $4.3M to monitor neurological health by analyzing speech patterns



Startup Aural Analytics raises $4.3M to monitor neurological health by analyzing speech patterns
https://sharpbrains.com/blog/2019/09/10/startup-aural-analytics-raises-4-3m-to-monitor-neurological-health-by-analyzing-speech-patterns/

Sent from Flipboard


******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Saturday, September 07, 2019

Status of Dr. Kevin McGrew - "I'm back!"








As many of my readers may (or may not) know, this past winter I was critically ill for 82 days.  As a result, I was unable to respond to many questions or requests.  But...I have been on the mend since the middle of February and am again at full steam.

Why am I sharing?  Well....apparently the word spread that I had either expired or had retired.  This is far from the truth.  I am back doing my project work, research, and engaging in consultations.  Thanks to all who provided support during my illness.



The brain’s default network: updated anatomy, physiology and evo



The brain's default network: updated anatomy, physiology and evo
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41583-019-0212-7

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Saturday, July 27, 2019

Hot and cool dimensionality of executive function: Model invariance across age and maternal education in preschool children - ScienceDirect


Abstract

The structure of executive function (EF), as it pertains to distinct "hot" (affectively salient) and "cool" (affectively neutral) dimensions, in early childhood is not well understood. Given that the neural circuitry underlying EF may become increasingly differentiated with development and enriched experiences, EF may become more dissociable into hot and cool factors with age and advantaged socioeconomic circumstances. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to compare a multidimensional hot and cool EF model with a unidimensional model in early childhood, and to investigate model invariance across age and maternal education. Participants were 1900 children (2–5 years of age) from socioeconomically diverse families in an urban area in the southern United States. We aggregated data from four previously collected studies that included EF tasks, thus this study includes secondary data analysis. We tested model fit across (1) children older and younger than 4 years of age and (2) higher (college experience) versus lower (no college) maternal education. Results indicated that a two-factor hot and cool EF model provided the best fit to the data across all groups. Although the number of factors was invariant, only partial metric invariance was met for age, suggesting that how certain tests represent EF changes with age. For maternal education, partial scalar invariance was met, with higher maternal education associated with higher scores on certain EF tasks. Findings with this large sample suggest that EF includes two factors characterized as hot and cool. However, the study raises questions about model invariance, particularly across age.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0885200619300961



Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Monday, July 08, 2019

Structure of brain networks is not fixed - Neuroscience News



Structure of brain networks is not fixed - Neuroscience News
https://neurosciencenews.com/brain-network-structure-14435/amp/

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************

Friday, July 05, 2019

Cognitive ability is associated with changes in the functional organization of the cognitive control brain network - A. Breukelaar - 2018 - Human Brain Mapping - Wiley Online Library



Cognitive ability is associated with changes in the functional organization of the cognitive control brain network - A. Breukelaar - 2018 - Human Brain Mapping - Wiley Online Library
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hbm.24342

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******************************************************
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
IAP
******************************************************