Tuesday, March 30, 2010

iPost: CDC TBI stats

CDC TBI brain injury stats at BRAIN INJURY blog link below


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Friday, March 26, 2010

iPost: Free neuro article from Psychology Press

psypress: Friday's Free Neuro article: Impairments in prospective and
retrospective memory following stroke, from Neurocase


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Thursday, March 25, 2010

Rhythm-based intervention: RhythmBee

 I just ran across another Rhythm-based educational intervention called RhythmBee. What is on the their web page is all I know.  This is an FYI notice, and does not represent any endorsement of the intervention by the blogmaster.  I would need to see empirical research studies before rendering any opinion.

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Saturday, March 20, 2010

iPost: Motor timing, Parkinsons and cerebellum diseases research study

Yet another study linking role of cerebellum in motor timing and diseases like

Martin Bareš1, 2 Contact Information, Ovidiu V. Lungu3, Ivica Husárová1 and Tomáš Gescheidt1

(1) Department of Neurology, St. Anne's Hospital Medical Faculty Masaryk University Brno, Pekarská 53, 656 91, Brno, Czech Republic
(2) Movement Disorders Centre Brno, Pekarská 53, 656 91, Brno, Czech Republic
(3) Functional Neuroimaging Unit, Geriatric Institute, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada

Published online: 23 October 2009

There is evidence that both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum play a role in the neural representation of time in a variety of behaviours, but whether one of them is more important is not yet clear. To address this question in the context of predictive motor timing, we tested patients with various movement disorders implicating these two structures in a motor-timing task. Specifically, we investigated four different groups: (1) patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD); (2) patients with sporadic spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA); (3) patients with familial essential tremor (ET); and (4) matched healthy controls. We used a predictive motor-timing task that involved mediated interception of a moving target, and we assessed the effect of movement type (acceleration, deceleration and constant), speed (slow, medium and fast) and angle (0°, 15° and 30°) on performance (hit, early error and late error). The main results showed that PD group and arm ET subgroup did not significantly differ from the control group. SCA and head ET subjects (severe and mild cerebellar damage, respectively) were significantly worse at interception than the other two groups. Our findings support the idea that the basal ganglia play a less significant role in predictive motor timing than the cerebellum. The fact that SCA and ET subjects seemed to have a fundamental problem with predictive motor timing suggests that the cerebellum plays an essential role in integrating incoming visual information with the motor output in a timely manner, and that ET is a heterogeneous entity that deserves increased attention from clinicians.

Keywords  Cerebellum - Essential tremor - Interception - Motor timing - Parkinson's disease - Spinocerebellar ataxia

Contact InformationMartin Bareš
Email: martin.bares@fnusa.cz
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Wednesday, March 17, 2010

iPost: Mental timing, aging and movement

Aging, time scales, and sensorimotor variability.

Tue, Dec 22 2009 2:17 AM 
by Newell, Karl M.; Mayer-Kress, Gottfried; Liu, Yeou-Teh

It is well established that there is an increased amount of intraindividual variability with aging in a variety of behavioral contexts. Here, we elaborate from a self-organization and dynamic systems framework to investigate the relevant time scales of variability as a function of aging and their relation to the changes in the amount and structure (frequency and time domains) of movement and postural variability. In particular, we examine evidence for the general hypotheses that (a) there is a reduction or even loss of shorter time scales in the control of movement with aging and (b) the shorter the time scale in motor output variability, the more sensitive the measure is as a biomarker to revealing the onset and early influence of aging and disease. The dynamic analysis of the time scales of variability distinguishes the distinctive roles of stability and noise in the increased amount of intraindividual variability with aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

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iPost: Cognitive enhancement--life style choice or drugs

Journal ArticlePrintable view

Eric Racine1, 2, 3 Contact Information and Cynthia Forlini1, 2

(1) Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, Montreal, Canada
(2) Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada
(3) McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Received: 16 July 2008  Accepted:31 July 2008  Published online: 4 September 2008

The prospects of enhancing cognitive or motor functions using neuroscience in otherwise healthy individuals has attracted considerable attention and interest in neuroethics (Farah et al., Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5:421–425,2004; Glannon Journal of Medical Ethics 32:74–78, 2006). The use of stimulants is one of the areas which has propelled the discussion on the potential for neuroscience to yield cognition-enhancing products. However, we have found in our review of the literature that the paradigms used to discuss the non-medical use of stimulant drugs prescribed for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary considerably. In this brief communication, we identify three common paradigms—prescription drug abuse, cognitive enhancement, and lifestyle use of pharmaceuticals—and briefly highlight how divergences between paradigms create important "ethics blind spots".

Keywords  Neuroethics - Enhancement - Prescription drug misuse - Lifestyle drugs - Public health

Contact InformationEric Racine
Email: Eric.Racine@ircm.qc.ca

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Monday, March 15, 2010

iPost: Brain Awarness week


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Friday, March 12, 2010

iPost: Episodic buffer as fourth part of working memory

Abstract- selected
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Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 11, 1 November 2000, Pages 417-423

doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?
Purchase the full-text article

Alan BaddeleyE-mail The Corresponding Author

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 8 Woodland Road, Bristol UK BS8 1TN. tel: + 44 117 928 8541 fax: +44 117 926 8562

Available online 25 October 2000. 


In 1974, Baddeley and Hitch proposed a three-component model of working memory. Over the years, this has been successful in giving an integrated account not only of data from normal adults, but also neuropsychological, developmental and neuroimaging data. There are, however, a number of phenomena that are not readily captured by the original model. These are outlined here and a fourth component to the model, the episodic buffer, is proposed. It comprises a limited capacity system that provides temporary storage of information held in a multimodal code, which is capable of binding information from the subsidiary systems, and from long-term memory, into a unitary episodic representation. Conscious awareness is assumed to be the principal mode of retrieval from the buffer. The revised model differs from the old principally in focussing attention on the processes of integrating information, rather than on the isolation of the subsystems. In doing so, it provides a better basis for tackling the more complex aspects of executive control in working memory.

Article Outline

1. Problems for the current model
1.1. The phonological loop: limits and limitations
1.2. Prose recall
1.3. The problem of rehearsal
1.4. Consciousness and the binding problem
2. The episodic buffer
2.1. How is the buffer implemented biologically?
2.2. So what's new?
3. Some outstanding issues

Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 11, 1 November 2000, Pages 417-423
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